The application scope of soy protein in meat products is becoming more and more extensive, because of its good nutritional value and functional properties.
Adding soy protein in meat products can not only improve the product yield, but also improve the taste of the product. Soy protein has good gel property and water retention. When heated over 60℃, the viscosity increases rapidly, when heated to 80-90℃, the gel structure will be smooth, so that soy protein entering into the tissue of meat can improve the taste and quality of meat greatly. Soybean protein has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties which can easily combine with water and saturated with oil, so it has good emulsifying feature. This processing characteristic is very important in the processing of meat products with high fat content, which can restrain the lost of fat to stabilize the product quality. Although soy protein plays an important role in meat processing, in order to control soy protein in meat products replacing of whole meat and prevent adulteration, many countries have restrictly addition of it to ensure the healthy development in meat process. In view of the fact that there is no effective method for the determination of soy protein in meat products, it is great significant to study the detection method of soy protein in meat products.
2 Advantages of applying soy protein in meat products
Meat is reagarded as the best source of protein, owing to its high nutritional value and good taste in western countries. In order to make full use of animal resources, meat processing enterprises not only use protein-rich lean meat, but also often use fat-rich chicken skins, fat and other low-value materials. For example, Bologna sausages, Frankfurt sausages, salami and other meat products have relatively high content of fat. For example, Frankfurt sausages has about 30% of the intestine fat content and raw pork intestine fat content of up to 50%. High fat additions make meat processing more difficult. For example, in the production of emulsified sausages with high fat content, it is easy to form the phenomenon of oil. In order to control the oiling phenomenon of sausages in the heating process, it is necessary to add emulsifiers or accessories with the function of water-preserving oil. Usually, meat products as a "emulsifier" is the meat protein, but once the amount of lean meat added is relatively small, fat content is large, the entire emulsification system will lose balance, some fat in the heating process will be isolated. This can be addressed by adding non-meat protein, thus soy protein the best option. In meat processing, there are several other important reasons for adding soy protein. Medical health experts believe that low-fat meat products are healthier, fatty meat products are more likely to cause high blood pressure and other related diseases. Low-fat meat products will become the future development trend of meat products. Developing low-fat meat products is not simply a reduction in fat addition, which also requires a comprehensive consideration of the taste of product. As fat plays an important role in juicy, tissue structure and other aspects of meat products, once reducing the amount of fat, the taste of meat products will be affected.Therefore, in the development of meat products, "fat substitute" is necessary, it can reduce the fat content of the product on the one hand, on the other hand it can ensure the taste of the product. By adding soy protein, not only can reduce the calories of the product, but also can preserve the flavor and taste of the product to the greatest extent. Wheat protein, egg white and soy protein are better fat substitutes, while soy protein is more popular because of its good processing properties. Another reason to add soy protein is that it's much cheaper than meat protein. Adding plant protein can greatly reduce the production cost of meat products. In the actual production, because of the high price of meat protein, in order to improve the cost performance of the product, the low price of soy protein is often the first choice of production enterprises. In addition, in economically backward areas, animal protein is very scarce, soy protein and other plant protein is the most important source of protein. Soybean protein is the most widely used plant protein. Its main advantages lie in: First, smaller peculiar smell; Second, the price is low; Thirdly, high nutritive value ( soybean protein is rich in essential amino acids, and its digestibility and absorption rate are high in human body ) Fourth, excellent processability (better hydration, gelation and emulsification); Fifth, the use of meat products can improve product appearance quality and palatability. Soy protein can be divided into soy protein concentrate, soy texture protein, soy protein isolate and so on according to their components. Each protein product has different functional properties, which are applied to different types of meat products according to different functional properties. For example, soy protein isolate and protein concentrate are mainly used in some emulsified sausages. Compared with soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate is rich in raffinose and stachyose oligosaccharides, which can easily cause bloating. Tissue proteins are often used in meatballs and pies. In addition, soy protein isolate ( SPi) and soy protein concentrate ( SPc) are often used in some injection-type meat products to improve the hardness, slicing and yield of the products. Because soybean whole flour has strong beany smell and rough taste, Ruiqianjia soy protein isolate and protein concentrate are better than soy whole flour in food processing.
3 Requirements and problems of soy protein applying in meat products
Too muchh addition of soy protein can cause allergies in some groups of people, in order to prevent soy protein being used as pure whole meat in meat process, to prevent adulteration and ensure the healthy development of the meat industry, many countries have strictly restricted the addition amount of soy protein. Some countries have strictly restricted the amount of soy protein added to meat products. In the United States, for example, the amount of soy flour and soy concentrate protein in sausages can not exceed 3. 5%, the addition of soy protein isolate should not exceed 2%; Soy flour, soy protein concentrate and soy isolated protein in beef patties and meatballs should not be over 12%. In salami, many countries have strict restrictions on the amount of addition soy protein, Spain requires less than 1%; French food laws require less than 2 per cent.
The U.S. labeling requirements for soy protein in meat products are as follows:
When the soy protein addition is less than 1/13, it needs to be identified in the ingredients list; When the addition is close to 10%, it should not only be identified in the ingredients list, but also be commented next to the product name; When its content is more than 10%, soy protein is not only identified in the ingredients list, but also in the product attribute name.
Many countries have strict requirements for the addition of soy protein and the marking of meat products. But there is no effective way to detect soy protein. Because current testing of proteins is mainly determined by detecting nitrogen content, plant proteins and meat proteins are difficult to distinguish. In order to further regulate the use of soy protein in meat products, a method to detect plant protein content is needed. In the 1880s, many food scientists studied the detection of soy protein content in meat products. The enzyme-linked immunoassay method is recognized as a more authoritative test, but the standard of the soy protein added is required to use this method. In view of this, there is no effective way to carry out a simple and rapid test of soy protein in meat products. In order to regulate the use of soy protein in meat products, it is important to develop an effective test
Soy protein as a high-quality plant protein comparable to animal protein, containing the human body's 8 essential amino acids, with high nutritional value, meanwhile soy protein has excellent water & oil bonding and excellent gel characteristics, as well as cheap price and other advantages to make it widely used in meat processing. However, some enterprises use soy protein to increase water retention and thus cover up adulteration, in order to sub-charge, damage consumer rights and interests, which should be severely cracked down and controlled. At present, there is no effective detection method for soy protein in meat products, so it is urgent to develop a new test method for the rapid, convenient and accurate discrimination of meat adulteration.
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Why are soy fiber dietary thought to be so good for health? What are the characteristics of soy dietary fiber? What is the function of SPI?
l What is soy dietary fiber?
l What are the soy dietary fiber used for
l What are the health effects of soy dietary fiber
soybean dietary fiberary mainly refers to the general term for macromolecular carbohydrates that cannot be digested by human digestive enzymes, mainly including cellulose, pectin, xylan, mannose, etc. Although dietary fiber cannot provide any nutrients to the human body, it has important physiological functions for the human body. Dietary fiber has the functions of significantly reducing plasma cholesterol, regulating gastrointestinal function and insulin level.
The biological activity of soybean dietary fiberary, regulating blood lipids, lowering cholesterol, soybean dietary fiberary has the ability to bind and exchange cations, and can exchange ca2+, pa2+, etc. During ion exchange, the instantaneous concentration of cations is changed, which plays a role in dilution, so it affects the pH value, osmotic pressure and redox site of the digestive tract, forming an ideal buffer environment. More importantly, it can exchange with NA+ in the intestinal tract, prompting a large amount of K+ and NA+ to be eliminated from the urine and feces, thereby reducing the NA+/K+ value in the blood and directly reducing blood pressure. Therefore, the prevention and treatment of high blood pressure, heart disease and arteriosclerosis is closely related to the excretion of cholesterol and bile acid and dietary fiber. The water-soluble dietary fiber in soybean fiber has the effect of significantly reducing blood cholesterol concentration.
SPI can inhibit and regulate the increase of insulin and blood sugar levels in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. It can promote the absorption of water in the gastrointestinal tract of the human body, delay the absorption of glucose, and at the same time make people feel full, which is beneficial for diabetic and obese patients to eat. It can improve the function of the large intestine.
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With lifestyle changes in recent years, the number of prepared meat products is quietly increasing, ranging from a variety of semi-prepared chicken nuggets, seasoned meat steaks and barbecue products to convenience store staples such as kebab and bento. Through the retail end, prepared meat products are increasingly infiltrating the domestic consumption of the Chinese public, well is gradually becoming a consumer popular. In regulate the development of meat products, soybean protein is a kind of commonly used additives, not only can complement necessary hydrogen acids necessary for human, and mesh has good features such as foaming, emulsification and gel, so it can obviously improve the food's taste, increase elasticity, oily food and water retention, improve the storage performance of food, etc., can reduce the production cost at the same time, In regulate meat processing has the important role
Soybean flour mostly "defatted soybean" trends, because of its protein content is low, so the price is straight, used in meat products, can keep 2 times their own weight of water and flour emulsify material can keep the same weight of cerebral fat class material during hot working out oil, soy meal less functional, There are many shortcomings in taste and flavor, and many restrictions on the range and usage.
Soy Protein Concentrate
Soy Protein Concentrate’s protein content of about 70%, most used in meat products. Soybean concentrated heavy force since the emulsifying gel proportion is protein: water: fat = 1:4:3, It can improve the taste and structure,to improve protein content of meat products.
Isolated Soy Protein
Soy Protein Isolate is a kind of protein produced from low temperature desoluble soybean flour. The protein content is more than 90%, and there are nearly 20 kinds of amino acids, including essential amino acids for human body. It is rich in nutrition and does not contain cholesterol. It is widely used in prepared meat products.
Textured Soy Protein
Textured Soy Protein is made of defatted soya powder, soy protein concentrate or soybean protein isolate as raw materials by mechanical and heat action such as mixing, extrusion and chemical. These proteins have a certain fleshy taste sensation. Therefore, it has special application in meat conditioning and can replace some lean meat raw materials.
1. Water-retaining property
The water retention of soy protein plays an important role in meat production, especially its ability to absorb, combine and bind water in the processing of minced meat products, which can not only retain the juice of raw meat, increase the taste and flavor of products, but also increase the yield of products. The water retention of proteins is also affected by many factors, such as viscosity, pH, ionization strength and temperature. Ma Yuxiang studied the effect of the addition of soy protein isolate on salt-soluble muscle protein heat-induced gel, and the experimental results showed that the addition of soy protein isolate made the ultrastructure of the mixed protein gel rough, reduced the strength of the mixed protein gel, but improved the water-retaining capacity of the gel.
2. Emulsifying property
Emulsifying soybean protein hydrophilic, lipophilic determines its emulsifying stability, soybean protein is a surfactant, it can reduce the surface tension of water and oil, and reduce the surface tension of water and air, so it is easy to form a more stable emulsion. The emulsified oil droplets are stabilized by the heavy white material that accumulates on the surface of the oil droplets, forming a protective layer. This protective layer can prevent the accumulation of oil droplets and the destruction of the emulsification state, so that the emulsification performance is stable. In the preparation of baked food, frozen food and soup food, a large number of studies have been reported on adding human soy protein isolate as emulsifier to stabilize the product state.
3. Caking property
Protein molecular bonding, strong solubility and absorption ability make it has caking property, It apply to adjust food properties. When protein heatto 80 ℃, proteinwill happen business solution or analysis solution, molecular volume increases, viscosity increases, more than 90 ℃ viscosity decreases, pH in six to eight, protein structure is the most stable, maximum viscosity; Above 11, the viscosity is sharply reduced due to the breakdown of protein bonding.
4. Gel property
When meat products containing soy protein are heated, they will form a salty gelatinous structure, which has an obvious effect on the water retention and taste of the products due to the hardness, elasticity, flake and texture of the products. The formation of gel is affected by many factors, including heating time, temperature and concentration of soy protein solution.
Soybean protein contains essential amino acids, which can strengthen the nutritional composition of prepared meat products and play an important role in improving the quality of prepared meat products.
1.High cost effective protein source with enhanced nutrition
Soybean protein has been widely used in the preparation of meat products because of its low price and good protein quality. Adding soybean protein to all kinds of frozen meat products can not only improve the ratio of protein, but also make the nutrition of protein more comprehensive and reasonable.
2.Flavoring in prepared meat products
Soybean protein contains a small amount of fatty acids and carbohydrates, after heating will produce unique aroma, and regulate the products sometimes raw meat (fish) or ingredients and due to the processing of the I art, such as sterilization produced some of the unpleasant smell, may cause consumers antipathy, soy protein unique fragrance smell to above has certain masking effect, Therefore, soy protein has a certain flavoring effect.
3.Soy protein can improve the structure of prepared meat products
Soybean protein has good gel properties and bonding properties, which can effectively improve the texture of the product, enhance the elasticity and hardness of the product, and make the product compact in structure and better in taste. More meaty, especially in fast east meat country, live meatballs and meat products are more sold.
4.The emulsifying property of soybean protein was used to solve the problem of oil coming out of water of prepared meat products
Water, oil is one of the most common problems in the process of cooking in the conditioning of internal products, using the emulsification characteristics of soybean heavy white, so that the water and oil form a grain for the field network structure, so that the water and oil in the conditioning of internal products are very south, in the storage and cooking process of water, oil hidden less.
Two important processes for processing prepared meat products are processing raw meat and curing ingredients. According to the processing characteristics of prepared meat products, there are usually the following adding methods:
Large pieces of fresh meat are added with pickling solution. The soybean protein soluble brine brine is added by injection, and then other processing methods are carried out. This method can make protein evenly distributed in meat. Soy protein generally accounts for 2 to 6 percent of meat products by weight.
That is, soybean protein products in chopping, rolling, stirring process at the beginning of the state of dry material evenly added, but the dry material should be added to the meat products before fat.
In order to make full use of the functional characteristics of soybean protein, soybean protein products had better be hydrated before adding and made into a dispersion containing 18% of protein. The water ratio is soybean powder: water is 1:(1.5~1.8), protein concentrate: water is 1:(2~2.5), protein isolate: water is 1:(3.5~4).
Regulate meat as an emerging industry, its accessories added by the wide attention of the society, as a result of the good function of the soy protein, a variety of features, has become an important conditioning meat processing accessories, the size of the amount of its flavor, texture, structure plays an important role, If add a little amount of product caused not harmonious, not masking bad smell flavor, not to reach the effect of flavouring, And it will lead to loose product structure, soft taste and other adverse results; On the contrary, excessive use of the product will cause too strong bean smell, taste hard and other adverse phenomenons, the specific amount of soy protein to be added according to the quality of soy protein and the type of product to be developed to decide comprehensively.
The protein separated from soybean meal. They contain more than 90% protein. The basic principle of producing SPI is simple. Using defatted soybean flakes as raw materials, protein is first dissolved in water. The solution is separated from the solid residue. Finally, the protein is washed out of the solution, separated and dried.
Isolated soy protein is a kind of surfactant, which can reduce the surface tension of water and oil as well as air. It is easy to form stable emulsion. In the process of making baked food, frozen food and soup food, adding soy protein isolate as emulsifier can make the product stable.
Isolated soy protein can be added into meat products to form emulsion and gel matrix to prevent fat from moving to the surface. Therefore, it can promote fat absorption or fat binding. It can reduce the loss of fat and juice during the processing of meat products, help maintain the stability of appearance, and the oil absorption rate of protein separated is 154%.
It has high viscosity, plasticity and elasticity. It can be used not only as a carrier of water, but also as a carrier of flavoring agent, sugar and other complexes, which is very beneficial to food processing.
In soy protein, the foaming property of protein isolate is the best. The foaming property of soybean protein can give loose structure and good taste to food.
When the meat is chopped, the mixture of protein isolate and egg protein is applied on the surface of the fiber to form a thin film, which is easy to dry, can prevent odor loss, is conducive to the rehydration process, and provides a reasonable structure for the rehydrated products.
Isolated soy protein is a complete, high-quality, plant-based protein.It is a great solution for meat replacement without compromising quality, nutrition and functionality. Also it is cholesteral-free, low in saturated fat and carbohydrates, which makes it very attractive to health- conscious cousumers. Soy protein now are widely used in meat products such as hot dog, sausages, ham and fish products.
Application: high-temperature meat products, such as hot dog, sausages, ham, meat balls, meat paddies, fish balls, etc.
- Good water preserving capability to preserve water and gravy of meat products, keep the taste and flavor of meat products; enhance water absorption of baked food, hold water of food, reduce shrinkage and prolong its freshness period.
- Good gel agglutinative property to hold water, flavor and sugar of food by gel texture of protein; give products better elasticity, improve texture and sliceability of products.
- Good emulsification to accelerate the forming of oil-water emulsion, prevent oil droplets from separating, stabilize the emulsion. This can increase the yields of products, reduce costs, and make the preserving capability of water and oil 1:5:5(1 unit of protein can absorb 5 unit of water and 5 unit of oil or fat).
- Good liquidity, high viscosity etc.
Packing: 20kg/bag, Paper-plastic bag with lining
- prevent goods from rain and humidity during transportation and storage, forbidden to pack or store with other odorants.
- best temperature for storage is below 25Celsius, keep ventilation and dryness.
- shelf life is 12 months.
Vital Wheat Gluten is one of the most popular healthy foods. What role does wheat gluten play in the food industry? What are the advantages of organic wheat gluten
l What is organic wheat gluten
l What is the use of organic wheat gluten in food
l What are the health effects of organic wheat gluten
Vital Wheat Gluten has unique properties and is widely used in the food industry and feed industry for the preparation of edible films, bioactive small peptides and other products. Gluten flour, also known as active gluten flour and wheat gluten protein, is a natural protein extracted from wheat (flour). It is composed of a variety of amino acids. The protein content is as high as 75% to 85%. It is a nutrient-rich vegetable protein resource. It has viscosity, elasticity, extensibility, film formability and liposuction. Gluten is an excellent dough improver, which is widely used in the production of bread, noodles and instant noodles. It is used as a water-retaining agent in meat products, and it is also the basic raw material of high-grade aquatic feed.
1. The application of organic wheat gluten in bread flour can significantly improve the water absorption rate of dough, increase dough elasticity, air retention, dough kneading resistance and stability, and significantly improve the internal structure and baking quality of bread. And due to the high protein content of gluten, Maillard reaction often occurs during the baking process, resulting in an attractive aroma, which can improve the quality of bread.
2. organic wheat gluten can also improve the elasticity of foods. For example, after adding gluten to the fish cake, the gluten is restored to a ductile gluten network structure due to water absorption. After kneading, it is evenly mixed with the fish meat. Through heating, the gluten continuously absorbs water and heat denatures, strengthening the fish cake. The elasticity of the sausage; the use of gluten denatured by reducing agents or enzymes in the production of sausage products can enhance the elasticity of sausages.
3. Using wheat gluten as raw material, the edible film prepared has the characteristics of good mechanical properties, edible and degradable properties, and is often used as the substrate of edible film. Studies have shown that the edible film made from gluten has an ideal fresh-keeping effect.
The traditional view holds that protein plays a nutritional role in food, and protein can only be absorbed and utilized by the human body after it is decomposed into free amino acids. However, in recent years, studies have found that after digestion in the human body, proteins are mostly in the form of small peptides composed of 2-7 amino acid molecules, and then directly absorbed by the intestinal tract, and the proportion of amino acids absorbed is very small. At present, the extraction of bioactive small peptides from gluten has become a hot spot in functional food research.
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With the deepening of people's understanding of healthy food, Soy Protein Isolate is more and more popular. What are some examples of SPI applications in the food industry? What are the advantages of Soy Protein Isolate?
l What is Soy Protein Isolate?
l Application of Soy Protein Isolate in Meat Products
l Application of Soy Protein Isolate in Baked Food
Soybean protein isolate is a full-value protein food additive produced from low-temperature desolubilized soybean meal.Soy Protein Isolate is an important vegetable protein product, which is rich in nutrients and does not contain cholesterol. One of the varieties of protein, it has been widely used in food and other industries, and its protein content is as high as 90%. The digestibility and utilization rate can reach 93% to 97%. Soybean protein isolate contains 8 kinds of essential amino acids and some amino acids exceed the standard recommended by F A O /WHO. It is mainly composed of 11S and 7S globulin, and the protein composition is essential Eight kinds of amino acids are relatively balanced, especially lysine content is the highest.
At the same time, SPI also contains a lot of essential fatty acids, phospholipids, and minerals such as calcium and phosphorus that are beneficial to human health, and does not contain cholesterol. Its efficacy ratio is higher than that of meat. When mixed with other foods, it can significantly improve the nutritional value of the original food.
1. Minced meat products belong to the general public meat products, and the use of Soy Protein Isolate is small. For minced meat products such as meat patties, minced meatballs, dumplings and steamed buns, they are usually processed by roasting, frying, steaming and boiling. The processing temperature is high. It has good oil absorption properties.
2. Soy Protein Isolate can be used as an additive to improve product texture (reduce free fat). It can not only produce meat-like taste, but also enhance water holding capacity, reduce pie cooking shrinkage, improve yield, and reduce costs. At the same time, it can improve the nutritional value of the product.
When producing bread, adding no more than 5% Soy Protein Isolate can increase the volume of bread, improve the color of the skin, and have obvious effects on the sensory quality and nutritional value of bread (for example, it can make bread products The protein content increases, the volume increases, the texture is soft, the flavor is good, and the nutritional supplementation effect is obvious), and the shelf life of the product can also be extended; but if the amount of Soybean protein isolate added is too large (8%-12%), it will affect The tissue state and sensory quality of the bread will reduce the volume of the bread, thicken the skin, deepen the color, and harden the texture, and the effect is not good. Therefore, when using, the amount of Soybean protein isolate should be paid attention to.
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