Views: 59 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-07-14 Origin: Site
With lifestyle changes in recent years, the number of prepared meat products is quietly increasing, ranging from a variety of semi-prepared chicken nuggets, seasoned meat steaks and barbecue products to convenience store staples such as kebab and bento. Through the retail end, prepared meat products are increasingly infiltrating the domestic consumption of the Chinese public, well is gradually becoming a consumer popular. In regulate the development of meat products, soybean protein is a kind of commonly used additives, not only can complement necessary hydrogen acids necessary for human, and mesh has good features such as foaming, emulsification and gel, so it can obviously improve the food's taste, increase elasticity, oily food and water retention, improve the storage performance of food, etc., can reduce the production cost at the same time, In regulate meat processing has the important role
Soybean flour mostly "defatted soybean" trends, because of its protein content is low, so the price is straight, used in meat products, can keep 2 times their own weight of water and flour emulsify material can keep the same weight of cerebral fat class material during hot working out oil, soy meal less functional, There are many shortcomings in taste and flavor, and many restrictions on the range and usage.
Soy Protein Concentrate
Soy Protein Concentrate’s protein content of about 70%, most used in meat products. Soybean concentrated heavy force since the emulsifying gel proportion is protein: water: fat = 1:4:3, It can improve the taste and structure,to improve protein content of meat products.
Isolated Soy Protein
Soy Protein Isolate is a kind of protein produced from low temperature desoluble soybean flour. The protein content is more than 90%, and there are nearly 20 kinds of amino acids, including essential amino acids for human body. It is rich in nutrition and does not contain cholesterol. It is widely used in prepared meat products.
Textured Soy Protein
Textured Soy Protein is made of defatted soya powder, soy protein concentrate or soybean protein isolate as raw materials by mechanical and heat action such as mixing, extrusion and chemical. These proteins have a certain fleshy taste sensation. Therefore, it has special application in meat conditioning and can replace some lean meat raw materials.
1. Water-retaining property
The water retention of soy protein plays an important role in meat production, especially its ability to absorb, combine and bind water in the processing of minced meat products, which can not only retain the juice of raw meat, increase the taste and flavor of products, but also increase the yield of products. The water retention of proteins is also affected by many factors, such as viscosity, pH, ionization strength and temperature. Ma Yuxiang studied the effect of the addition of soy protein isolate on salt-soluble muscle protein heat-induced gel, and the experimental results showed that the addition of soy protein isolate made the ultrastructure of the mixed protein gel rough, reduced the strength of the mixed protein gel, but improved the water-retaining capacity of the gel.
2. Emulsifying property
Emulsifying soybean protein hydrophilic, lipophilic determines its emulsifying stability, soybean protein is a surfactant, it can reduce the surface tension of water and oil, and reduce the surface tension of water and air, so it is easy to form a more stable emulsion. The emulsified oil droplets are stabilized by the heavy white material that accumulates on the surface of the oil droplets, forming a protective layer. This protective layer can prevent the accumulation of oil droplets and the destruction of the emulsification state, so that the emulsification performance is stable. In the preparation of baked food, frozen food and soup food, a large number of studies have been reported on adding human soy protein isolate as emulsifier to stabilize the product state.
3. Caking property
Protein molecular bonding, strong solubility and absorption ability make it has caking property, It apply to adjust food properties. When protein heatto 80 ℃, proteinwill happen business solution or analysis solution, molecular volume increases, viscosity increases, more than 90 ℃ viscosity decreases, pH in six to eight, protein structure is the most stable, maximum viscosity; Above 11, the viscosity is sharply reduced due to the breakdown of protein bonding.
4. Gel property
When meat products containing soy protein are heated, they will form a salty gelatinous structure, which has an obvious effect on the water retention and taste of the products due to the hardness, elasticity, flake and texture of the products. The formation of gel is affected by many factors, including heating time, temperature and concentration of soy protein solution.
Soybean protein contains essential amino acids, which can strengthen the nutritional composition of prepared meat products and play an important role in improving the quality of prepared meat products.
1.High cost effective protein source with enhanced nutrition
Soybean protein has been widely used in the preparation of meat products because of its low price and good protein quality. Adding soybean protein to all kinds of frozen meat products can not only improve the ratio of protein, but also make the nutrition of protein more comprehensive and reasonable.
2.Flavoring in prepared meat products
Soybean protein contains a small amount of fatty acids and carbohydrates, after heating will produce unique aroma, and regulate the products sometimes raw meat (fish) or ingredients and due to the processing of the I art, such as sterilization produced some of the unpleasant smell, may cause consumers antipathy, soy protein unique fragrance smell to above has certain masking effect, Therefore, soy protein has a certain flavoring effect.
3.Soy protein can improve the structure of prepared meat products
Soybean protein has good gel properties and bonding properties, which can effectively improve the texture of the product, enhance the elasticity and hardness of the product, and make the product compact in structure and better in taste. More meaty, especially in fast east meat country, live meatballs and meat products are more sold.
4.The emulsifying property of soybean protein was used to solve the problem of oil coming out of water of prepared meat products
Water, oil is one of the most common problems in the process of cooking in the conditioning of internal products, using the emulsification characteristics of soybean heavy white, so that the water and oil form a grain for the field network structure, so that the water and oil in the conditioning of internal products are very south, in the storage and cooking process of water, oil hidden less.
Two important processes for processing prepared meat products are processing raw meat and curing ingredients. According to the processing characteristics of prepared meat products, there are usually the following adding methods:
Large pieces of fresh meat are added with pickling solution. The soybean protein soluble brine brine is added by injection, and then other processing methods are carried out. This method can make protein evenly distributed in meat. Soy protein generally accounts for 2 to 6 percent of meat products by weight.
That is, soybean protein products in chopping, rolling, stirring process at the beginning of the state of dry material evenly added, but the dry material should be added to the meat products before fat.
In order to make full use of the functional characteristics of soybean protein, soybean protein products had better be hydrated before adding and made into a dispersion containing 18% of protein. The water ratio is soybean powder: water is 1:(1.5~1.8), protein concentrate: water is 1:(2~2.5), protein isolate: water is 1:(3.5~4).
Regulate meat as an emerging industry, its accessories added by the wide attention of the society, as a result of the good function of the soy protein, a variety of features, has become an important conditioning meat processing accessories, the size of the amount of its flavor, texture, structure plays an important role, If add a little amount of product caused not harmonious, not masking bad smell flavor, not to reach the effect of flavouring, And it will lead to loose product structure, soft taste and other adverse results; On the contrary, excessive use of the product will cause too strong bean smell, taste hard and other adverse phenomenons, the specific amount of soy protein to be added according to the quality of soy protein and the type of product to be developed to decide comprehensively.